World-Class enterprises make no distinction between "external" and "internal" clients.
Every internal processing unit is seen as supplier of other downstream processing unit/s and client of upstream unit/s.
Most upstream processing units are direct clients of "external" suppliers or subcontractors, while most downstream units are "frontline" suppliers of "external" clients.
The value-chain continuum is now integral and global, and the value-chain principles (more ») are now endlessly applied:
- Maximisation of value transmitted at each step in the chain
- Maximisation of client's satisfaction